Natural Gas as Future Primary Fuel
Natural gas accounts for about a quarter of US energy consumption. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal because it emits less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit, is cheaper per unit of energy and is available in sufficient quantities on the domestic market. However, due to a number of political, infrastructure, price and other barriers, the use of natural gas as a major energy source in the United States has been limited. In our work, we highlight the favorable properties of natural gas and its benefits to consumers, producers and the environment by comparing the costs of various components of the natural gas sector, such as drilling and transportation, with those coal and oil. It also addresses the main issues that have prevented more frequent use of gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure for natural gas is more expensive because it is transported by pipeline, while other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible trains and trucks and use ships. In addition, the powerful pressure groups of the coal and oil companies, combined with the slow pace of Congress to pass a national climate change bill, are encouraging these industries, despite their various attractive qualities, to invest in natural gas . We are also discussing policy proposals to promote increased use of natural gas in the future.
Natural gas is produced in the earth’s crust by the conversion of organic matter due to the heat and pressure of the superimposed rock. Gaseous hydrocarbons can also be caused by microbial decomposition of organic substances and by the reduction of mineral salts. Some of these gases are released into the atmosphere or hydrosphere while the rest accumulates in the upper layers of the Earth’s crust.
The composition of natural gas varies according to a number of factors such as origin, location and geological structure. Natural gas consists mainly of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as methane. Components such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen and helium make up a negligible part of the natural gas composition. Natural gas is the cleanest fuel available, and the main products of natural gas combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor. The combustion of natural gas releases very small amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), other reactive hydrocarbons and virtually no particles. Coal and oil are made up of much more complex molecules and release greater pollutant emissions during combustion, such as. In the form of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. They also release ash particles into the environment.
Natural gas can be used in a variety of ways to reduce emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere by emitting less harmful pollutants. Increased reliance on natural gas can potentially reduce emissions of many of these harmful pollutants. In the United States, pollutants from burning fossil fuels have led to a number of urgent environmental problems, including:
• Emission of greenhouse gases that can contribute to global warming
• Smog, air quality and acid rain harmful to human health and the entire ecosystem
Global warming is an environmental problem that takes into account the potential for global climate change due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Scientists say an increase in greenhouse gases around the world will cause an increase in temperature. The main greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and nitrogen oxides. The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased as the growing population burns fossil fuels on a large scale.
Methane, the main component of natural gas, is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Methane emissions account for only 1.1% of the United States’ total greenhouse gas emissions, or 8.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the global warming potential. A 1997 study by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the GRI (Gas Research Institute) concluded that reducing emissions from increased natural gas consumption would outweigh the adverse effects of methane emissions. As a result, increased use of natural gas can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.
Smog is caused by a chemical reaction of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds and solar heat. Ground-level ozone and smog can cause respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort to permanent lung injury. The use of natural gas does not contribute to smog formation, as it releases only small amounts of nitrogen oxides and no particles. Increased use of natural gas could be used to combat smog production. This would reduce the smog emissions that cause chemicals and improve the quality of the air.
Acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor and other chemicals in the presence of sunlight. Increased use of natural gas could reduce acid rain emissions.
Natural gas-fired industrial applications and natural gas power generation offer many environmental benefits and environmentally friendly uses, including:
1) Less GHG emissions
2) Post-combustion: Natural gas can be added to coal or oil-fired boilers to reduce NOx and SO2 emissions.
3) Reduced Sludge: Sludge is the residue of industrial wastewater treatment or wastewater treatment processes. Coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers, which reduce SO2 emissions with scrubbers, typically produce thousands of tonnes of noxious sludge. Natural gas releases insignificant quantities of SO2, eliminating the need for scrubbers and reducing the amount of sludge from industrial processes.
4) Combined heat and power generation: Combined heat and power production uses a heat engine or power plant to simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat. The preferred fuel for new cogeneration plants is natural gas.
5) fuel cells
6) Generation of a combined cycle